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Latest Edit: Hector 2014-03-13 (EDT)
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The purine content in food is determined by measuring the degree which a food contains uric acid, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine. A low-purine diet is commonly used as part of naturopathic dietary recommendations.
Purine Rich Foods
- Foods With a High Purine Level: includes organ meats such as heart, liver and kidney; herring; mussels; yeast; smelt; sardines and sweetbreads.
- Foods With a Moderately High Purine Levels: includes anchovies, grouse, mutton, veal, bacon, salmon, turkey, partridge, trout, goose, haddock, pheasant, scallops.
- Protein-rich vegetable-based meat substitutes might be generally accepted as meat alternatives for individuals on special diets. The type of protein used to manufacture these products determines the total content of purines, which is relatively higher in the case of mycoprotein or soybean protein, while appearing lower in wheat protein and egg white-based products. These are therefore more suitable for dietary considerations in a low-purine diet for hyperuricaemic subjects.
- Gout. A low-purine diet is typically recommended as part of the treatment for gout.
- Cardiovascular disease may benefit from low-purine diet.
- Insulin resistance exacerbates the development of hyperuricemia following high-purine load. In fact, insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor increasing the susceptibility to the development of hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis following high-purine diet.
- About 80% of all kidney stones are composed of calcium salts (75% calcium oxalate), while about 5% are pure uric acid. Nutritional intervention is based on a high water intake; decreased calcium and Vitamin C intake; as well as modest sodium and Protein|animal protein]] consumption. A low oxalate and low purine-diet is often advisable.
- High Uric Acid can be associated with chronic prostatitis. A low purine diet may be able to relieve the symptoms.
- Uric acid may play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson's disease. Uric acid is a natural antioxidant that may reduce oxidative stress, a mechanism thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Higher levels of serum urate (SU) may have a neuroprotective effect. High Serum Urate levels reduced the risk of developing Parkinson's disease and correlated with slower progression. Among Parkinson's disease patients Serum Urate levels were lower as compared with controls. It is possible that a high purine diet in patients with Parkinson's disease may slow progression of the disease. Milk and meat consumption as well as exercise modify the risk of developing PD possibly through their influence on Serum Urate levels.
- Pizzorno Joseph, Murray Michael (1999) Textbook of Natural Medicine e-dition: Text with continually updated online reference, 2-volume set
- Havlik J, Plachy V, Fernandez J, Rada V (Nov 2010) Dietary purines in vegetarian meat analogues J Sci Food Agric;Vol.90(14):2352-7. PMID:20661929.
- Zhu WH, Fang LZ, Chen LY, Chen ZW, Dai HL, Chen JH (Mar 2010) Follow-up study of programmed intervention of hyperuricemia in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular morbid change Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi;Vol.90(10):662-6. PMID:20450723.
- Miao Z, Yan S, Wang J et al. (Oct 2009) Insulin resistance acts as an independent risk factor exacerbating high-purine diet induced renal injury and knee joint gouty lesions. Inflamm Res;Vol.58(10):659-68. PMID:19333726.
- Miggiano GA, Migneco MG (Jan-Feb 2007) Diet and nutrition in nephrolitiasis Clin Ter;Vol.158(1):49-54. PMID:17405659.
- Motrich RD, Olmedo JJ, Molina R, et al. (Mar 2006) Uric acid crystals in the semen of a patient with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. Fertil Steril;Vol.85(3):751 PMID:16500353.
- Schlesinger I, Schlesinger N (Sept 2008) Uric acid in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disord;23(12):1653-7. PMID: 18618666.