|Causes||Dietary Factors, Heavy Metals, Medical Procedures|
|See Also||Cardiovascular Conditions, Anemia, Hypertension, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, Stroke|
|Books||Books on Cardiovascular Conditions|
|Articles||Articles on Cardiovascular Conditions|
Hemorrhage is defined as a copious discharge of blood from blood vessels. Hemorrhage may be external or enclosed with a tissue, referred to as a hematoma. Hematomas may be minor, such as a bruise or may be severe enough to cause death, depending on the location and size of the hematoma.
Hemorrhages are typically a complication of an underlying associated condition, but there are some direct causes including:
- Trauma or injury
- Reaction of prescription medications
Types of Hemorrhage
Hemorrhages are typically classified based on size:
- Petechiae refer to small (1 to 2 mm) hemorrhages in skin, mucous membranes or serosal surfaces.
- Purpura refer to larger (greater than 3 mm) hemorrhages.
- Ecchymosis refer to large (greater than 1 to 2 cm) subcutaneous bruises.
- Large internal hemorrhaging is classified based on the specific location, such as hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemoperitoneum or hemoarthrosis.
Reviewed by Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND 
- Robbins Stanley, Cotran Ramzi, Kumar Vinay, Collins Tucker (1999) Pocket Companion to Robbins Patholoical Basis of Disease, 6th Edition W.B. Saunders.