|See Also||Lab Tests|
This test is used to detect liver cell dysfunction. It is the most sensitive test in detecting bilary obstruction, cholangitis, or cholecystitis. Another important clinical indicator of GGT is that it can detect heavy and chronic alcohol ingestion. 
- GGT is a common test used by naturopathic doctors to determine the impact of environmental toxins on a person's health.
- GGT or Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase is an enzyme involved in the transfer of amino acids and peptides across the cellular membrane and may possibly be involved in glutathione metabolism.
- The highest concentrations of this enzyme are found in the liver and biliary tract. Lesser concentrations can be found in the kidney, spleen, heart, intestine, brain, and prostate gland.
- Men may have higher levels of GGT than women due to the additional levels in the prostate.
- The levels of GGT normally parallels that of akaline phosphatase (ALP).
- An 8-hour fast is recommended. Only water is permitted.
- Factors which can cause increased levels
- Drugs: alcohol, phenytoin (Dilantin), and phenobarbital
- Factors which can cause decreased levels
- Values may be decreased in late pregnancy
- Drugs: clofibrate, oral contraceptives
High levels indicate:
- High environmental toxic load
- Liver diseases (e.g. hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic tumor or metastasis, hepatotoxic drugs, cholestasis, jaundice)
- Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack)
- Alcohol ingestion
- Pancreatic disease (e.g. pancreatitis, cancer of the pancreas)
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (infectious mononucleosis), cytomegalovirus infections, and Reye syndrome
Low levels indicate:
- None noted
- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 5'-Nucleotidase, Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH), Leucine Aminopeptidase (LAP)
- Pagana Kathleen D, Pagana Timothy J (2006) Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, Mosby.