Hematuria refers to the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be either microscopic, meaning it is found only upon urinalysis, or macroscopic, meaning it is clearly visible to the human eye. It is one of many urinary symptoms that indicate an underlying problem. While hematuria is most commonly benign, it can indicate underlying pathology. 
Effectively treating dysuria is dependent on properly identifying the associated conditions.
- Laboratory studies including urinalysis and microscopy are the primary means of identifying hematuria. Relevant follow up labs include urine culture, serum creatinine, urine protein quantification, and urine cytology.
- Based on clinical presentation, imaging including upper urinary tract imaging using CT scan may be indicated. 
It is important to identify the etiology of hematuria in order to appropriately direct treatment.
Reviewed by Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND 
- Carter C, Stallworth J, Holleman R (2011) Rakel: Textbook of Family Medicine 8th ed Chap 40 Urinary Tract Disorders Saunders
- Masahito J (2010) Evaluation and Management of Hematuria Prim Care 37(3):461-72