Glucose Urine Test
|See Also||Lab Tests|
A glucose test is part of routine urinalysis. The presence of glucose in the urine may indicate the likelihood of diabetes mellitus or other causes of glucose intolerance. However, this diagnosis must be confirmed by other tests. Glucosuria or glucose in the urine is not always abnormal. For example, it is common to see a high glucose content in the urine following the consumption of a high carbohydrate meal as well as in patients with otherwise normal glucose levels. Pre-diabetic patients receiving dextrose-containing IV fluids may also show high levels of glucose in the urine., 
- If glucose is present in the urine, it reflects the degree of glucose elevation in the blood.
- Urine glucose tests are also used to monitor the effectiveness of diabetes therapy.
- Normally, glucose is filtered from the body by the glomeruli of the kidney.
- In the glomerular filtrate, the glucose concentration is the same as in the blood and is normally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules.
- When the blood glucose level exceeds the capability of the renal threshold to reabsorb the glucose, it begins to accumulate in the urine
- Generally no preparation is required. Fasting may be advised in some situations.
- Factors which can cause increased levels:
- any substance that can reduce copper in the Clinitest (may include sugars such as galactose, fructose, lactose)
- Drugs: acetylsalicylic acid, aminosalicylic acid, ascorbic acid, cephalothin, chloral hydrate, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, loop and thiazide diuretics, estrogen, glucose infusions, isoniazid, levodopa, lithium, nafcillin, nalidixic acid, and nicotinic acid
- Factors which can cause decreased levels:
- Drugs: ascorbic acid, levodopa, and phenazopyridine
High levels indicate:
- Diabetes mellitus and other causes of hyperglycemia
- Renal glycosuria
- Fanconi's symdrome
- Hereditary defects in metabolism of other reducing substances
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Nephrotoxic chemicals
Low levels indicate:'
- None noted
- Blood Glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin, Glucose tolerance, Timed postprandial glucose, Glucagon, Blood Insulin
- Pagana Kathleen D, Pagana Timothy J (1998) Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, Mosby, Inc
- Weatherby Dicken, Ferguson Scott (2002) Blood Chemistry and CBC Analysis: Clinical Laboratory Testing from a Functional Perspective, Bear Mountain