Fungal Infection

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Latest Edit: Hector 2014-2-18 (EDT)

Fungal infections have become more prevalent and more serious with the increased use of immunosuppressive therapies, and the increased prevalence of HIV worldwide. Fungal diseases are responsible for an increasing burden on healthcare systems.[1]

Fungal Infection
Fungal.jpg

Fungal Infection
Causes Food Reactions, Smoking, Allergies, Infections
See Also General Conditions, Respiratory Conditions
Books Books on Infections, Allergies, Intolerances
Articles Articles on Infections / Allergies / Sensitivities

Contents

Naturopathic Assessment

Any infection depends on two factors: personal susceptibility and exposure to a pathogen. The naturopathic assessment looks at both aspects. The stronger a person's vitality the less likely they will be affected by exposure to fungi or other pathogens. Fungal infections predominantly affect those individuals that are immuno-compromised.

Sources

Exposure to fungi typically occurs:

  • Damp surfaces
  • Damp surfaces such as locker-rooms, showers and bathrooms are ideal environments for the growth and transmission of fungal infections.[2]
  • Air
  • Some fungal infections, such as Aspergillus species are found in the air, especially in hospitals, old-age homes or areas where there end to be a lot of immune-compromised people.[3]
  • Equipment
  • Shared tools such as in barbershop or hair salon may be a source for fungal colonization and may play an important role in spreading mycotic infections among people.[4]
  • Animals
  • Some animals may act as reservoirs of pathogenic fungi. Examples include Cryptococcus neoformans which is generally contracted from exposure to pigeon droppings.[2]

Diagnostic Testing

If fungal infection is suspected upon physical examination and health history intake, diagnostic studies may be used to confirm diagnosis, identify the fungus implicated, and establish appropriate treatment options. Diagnostic testing for fungal infections includes:[5]

  • Microscopic examination of culture to confirm and identify fungal microorganisms is the primary means of diagnostic evaluation. Several staining methods including gram stain, calcofluor, acridine, and methenamine silver, are useful in fungal identification. Methods for detection of fungal antigens have been developed and can be used to identify Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus.

Characteristics

  • Chronic fungal infections are generally associated with those that are immune compromised.
  • Fungal infections tend to grow and spread in areas of the body that damp, moist and not typically exposed to the air including: the groin, under or between the breast, skin folds, armpits and the feet.

Common Symptoms

Common signs and symptoms associated with fungal infections are as varied as fungi themselves. Some common symtoms associated with fungal infections include, but are not limited to:[1]

Common Fungus-Associated Conditions

Chronic Illness

Fungal infections can become a chronic, recurrent issue in immunocompromised patients. Superficial fungal infections may become a chronic issue for athletes, or those who are exposed to unavoidable humid, hot conditions. The most important, well studied, and prevalent chronic fungal condition remains candidiasis, please refer to this section for a detailed list of causative factors and treatment options.

Conditions by Body System

The following is a list of common and/or important fungal infections. This list is not exhaustive.

  • Dermatologic Fungal Conditions include:[6]
  • Tinea versicolor (commonly caused by P. orbiculare, or P. ovale)
  • Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis)*
  • Jock Itch (Tinea cruris)*
  • Ringworm of the body (Tinea corporis)*
  • Tinea of the beard (Tinea barbae)*
  • Tinea of the scalp (Tinea capitis)*

*These conditions are general caused by a group of fungi known as dermatophytes (commonly referred to as ringworm or tinea)

  • Respiratory Fungal Conditions include:[7]
  • Histoplasmosis (H. capsulatum)
  • Blastomycosis (B. dermatitidis)
  • Coccidiodomycosis (C. immitis, or Coccidiodes posadasii)
  • Paracoccidiodomycosis (Paracoccidioides brasiliensis)
  • Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans, or Cryptococcus gattii)
  • Aspergillosis (Aspergillus spp)
  • Zygomycosis (caused by members of the genera Mucor, Rhizopus, or Absidia)
  • Candidiasis (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, or C. glabrata)
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia (Pneumocystis jirovecii)
Fungal respiratory infections range in severity from asymptomatic, to presentation with mild malaise, to life threatening respiratory disease. These infections are especially serious in immuno-compromised individuals.
  • Neurological Fungal Conditions Include:[8]
  • Meningitis (Cryptococcus spp, Aspergillus spp., Pseudallescheria boydii, Coccidiodies spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Histoplasma capsulatum)
  • Brain Abscess ("Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., P. boydii)
Fungal infections affecting the nervous system are most commonly seen in immuno-compromised individuals.
  • Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)
  • Candidiasis (Candida spp)
Heaptic fungal infections are rare and generally only affect those with HIV or a severely compromised immune system

Naturopathic Treatments

The goal of naturopathic treatment is to support and work in tandem with the healing power of the body and to address the causal factors of disease with individual treatment strategies. The treatment for parasitic infections follow the same principles as all infections. The specific type of infection, i.e., whether it is acute or chronic and what physiological system is affected dictates the specific treatment strategy. Only those treatment specific to parasites are included in this section. For a full listing of treatment options refer to the section on infections.

It is always advisable to work with a naturopathic doctor before engaging in any treatment plan.

  • It is important that any area of the skin that has a fungus be cleaned with chemical-free anti-fungal soap, such as Neem Tree soap and then dried very well. Using a blow dryer to ensure the area is completely dry may be beneficial.
  • Wear only natural fibers that allow the skin to breath. Avoid clothing that is restrictive, especially in the area of the fungal infection.

References

Reviewed by Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND [2]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Bennett JE (2009) Mandell: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease Section G Mycoses Elsevier
  2. 2.0 2.1 Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA (2002) Medical Microbiology 4th ed Section VI Mycology Mosby
  3. Gangneux1 Jean-Pierre, Bretagne Stéphane, Cordonnier Catherine et al. Prevention of Nosocomial Fungal Infection: The French Approach Oxford Journals;35(3):343-346 [1]
  4. Uslu H, Uyanik M, Ayyildiz A (Sep 2008) Mycological examination of the barbers' tools about sources of fungal infections. Mycoses.;51(5):447-50. PMID: 19143034.
  5. Zaidi AKM, Goldmann DA (2011) Kliegman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed Chap 164 Diagnostic Microbiology Saunders
  6. Habif TP (2010) Habif: Clinical Dermatology, 5th ed Chap 13 Superficial Fungal Infections Elsevier
  7. Davies SF, Knox KS, Sarosi GA (2010) Mason: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 5th ed Chap 36 Fungal Infections Saunders
  8. Koshy A, Roos K (2012) Daroff: Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice, 6th ed Chap 53C Infections of the Nervous System: Bacterial and Fungal Saunders
  9. Kim AY, Chung RT (2010) Feldman: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 9th ed Chap 82 Bacterial, Parasitic, and Fungal Infections of the Liver, Including Liver Abscess Saunders
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