Cigarette Smoking

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Latest Edit: Hector 2014-5-13 (EDT)

According to the World Health Organization, smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. The addictive properties of the main ingredient in tobacco known as nicotine, is the cause of tolerance and dependence. [1]

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Contents

Characteristics

Tobacco is processed from the leaves of the plant from the genus nicotiana. It is often used as a pesticide and used in some medicines in the form of nicotine tartrate. It is consumed in a number of different ways such as chewing, snuffing, or dipping. However, tobacco is most commonly known around the world for its use in smoking as a recreational drug.

Impact

Smoking has a tremendous impact, primarily negative, on health both in the short-term and long-term. Both first- and second-hand smoking can have a negative impact. Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke are at higher risk of dying from coronary heart disease or lung cancer. Second-hand smoke exposure also increases the risk of other cancers and respiratory diseases in non-smokers.[2]

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  • Cigarette smoke is also known to deplete body of nutrients such as Vitamin C and beta-carotene which are important to fight cancerous changes.[3]

Potential Benefits

There are very few potential benefits to smoking.

  • Stress Reduction Smoking is often used as a means to reduce stress. But keep in mind, the withdrawal symptoms of smoking can cause stress and lead to dependence.[4]

Potential Risks

Smoking can influence one’s health in a number of ways:

Quitting Smoking

A number of different naturopathic therapies are available to help quit smoking:

  • Naturopathic Therapies
  • Acupuncture is commonly used to help people quit smoking as well as in between sessions to help reduce cravings by applying pressure on specific acupuncture points.

References

  1. Tobacco. (2012) Retrieved January 8th, 2012 from Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco]
  2. Effects of second-hand smoke exposure. (2011) Retreived January 8th, 2012 from Canada.com [1]
  3. Prokopczyk B, Cox JE, Hoffmann D, Waggoner SE (1997 Jun) Identification of tobacco-specific carcinogen in the cervical mucus of smokers and nonsmokers. J Natl Cancer Inst;Vol89(12):868-73. PMID: 9196253.
  4. "Smoking: psychological and social influences." (2011) Retrieved January 8, 2012 from "netdoctor": http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/smoking/psychologicalinfluences_000509.htm.
  5. Brot C, Jorgenson NR, Sorenson OH. (1999) "The influence of smoking on vitamin D status and calcium metabolism." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition", 53(12);920-926.
  6. Källberg H, Ding B, Padyukov L, Bengtsson C, Rönnelid J, Klareskog L, Alfredsson L; EIRA Study Group (Mar 2011) Smoking is a major preventable risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis: estimations of risks after various exposures to cigarette smoke. Ann Rheum Dis;70(3):508-11. PMID: 21149499.
  7. Bang SY, Lee KH, Cho SK, Lee HS, Lee KW, Bae SC (Feb 2010) Smoking increases rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in individuals carrying the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope, regardless of rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody status. Arthritis Rheum;62(2):369-77. PMID: 20112396.
  8. Kok MO, Hoekstra, Twisk JW (2011) The Longitudinal Relation between Smoking and Muscle Strength in Healthy Adults. European Addiction Research;18(2);70-75.
  9. Tony Axeix C, Anders H (1982) Epidemiologic study of excessive oral melanin pigmentation with special reference to the influence of tobacco habits. European Journal of Oral Sciences;90(6);434-442.
  10. Bergstrom J (2004) Influence of tobacco smoking on periodontal bone height. Long-term observations and a hypothesis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology;31(4);260-266.
  11. Tobacco smoking. (2012). Retrieved January 1, 2012 from Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia [2]
  12. El Fekih L, Berraies A, Hamzaoui A, Fennich S, Megdiche ML, Boussen H (2011) Impact of tobacco on bronchopulmonary affections: magnitude of the problem. La Tunisie Medicale;89(11)'814-9.
  13. Tobacco Free Initiative: Peripheral Vascular Disease. (2012) Retrieved January 7th, 2012 from World Health Organization [3]
  14. Sleight P (1993) Smoking and Hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension;15(6);1181-1192.
  15. Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy. (2012) Retrieved January 8th, 2012 from Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia [4]
  16. Wu R, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Lamoureux EL, Zheng Y, Rochtchina E, Tan AG, & Wong TY (2010) Smoking, socioeconomic factors, and age-related cataract: The Singapore Malay Eye study. Archives of opthalmology;128(8);1029-35.
  17. (2011) Smoking and second-hand smoke. Retrieved January 8th, 2012 from McVitamins[5]
  18. Smoking during pregnancy. (2011). Retrieved January 8th, 2012 from Canada.com: [6]
  19. http://www.homemademedicine.com/home-remedies-quit-smoking.html
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