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Latest Edit: Hector 2014-01-15 (EDT)

Pain is one of the most common complaints that affect quality of life. Determining the causes and triggers for pain is essential to effectively heal the pain.


Causes Injuries, Infections
See Also Musculoskeletal Conditions, Other Conditions, Neurological Conditions, Dysmenorrhea, Dysuria, Earache, Headache, Joint Pain, Low Back Pain, Neck Pain, Sore Throat
Books Books on Neurological Conditions
Articles Articles on Neurological Conditions


Pain is typically produced by one or more of the following methods:[1]

  • Direct stimulation of sensory nerve.
  • Swelling of an organ because of increased air, fluid, pus or blood.
  • Sudden obstruction of the arterial blood supply to an organ.
  • Obstruction of the venous drainage from an organ or area, causing swelling of that area with extracellular fluid or blood.
  • Obstruction of a duct that drains fluid from an organ, causing swelling of the organ.
  • Pain perception is strongly influenced by psychological state. For example, if a person is depressed or anxious, or if they expect that a given stimulus will be painful, then they are more likely to experience it as painful. This is because our psychological state influences our emotional, cognitive, and spinal (homeostatic afferent) pain processing networks.[2]
  • Placebo treatments can decrease pain perception. They do this by stimulating the release of endogenous opioids. Endogenous opioids are our bodies' own natural pain killers, and they activate the same pain modulatory brain regions as do opioid analgesics.[2]

Related Conditions

Painful joints.jpg

Pain is commonly associated with the following conditions:

Article Petasites for Pain and Inflammation, NDNR; 2012 July
Article Herbal High Road Can Alleviate Pain, NDNR, 2011 July
Article Pain as Teacher, NDNR , [1], 2011 July
Article Dr. Joseph Gabriele delivers the future of pain management , IHP ; Nov/Dec 2012
Article Key Herbs for Pain Management , 2013 Summer;Vol20 (2) Vital Link


  1. Collins Douglas (1981) Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care, Second Edition Lippincott - Raven.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Van Oudenhove L. (2011) "Understanding gut-brain interactions in gastrointestinal pain by neuroimaging." "Neurogastroenterology and Motility." 23:pp. 292-302 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01666.x