C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
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C-reactive protein is an acute-phase reactive protein that is used as a marker of inflammatory illness. It is an abnormal protein produced mainly by the liver when an acute inflammatory process occurs. The synthesis of CRP is triggered by antigen-immune complexes, bacteria, fungi, and trauma. It is primarily synthesized by hepatocytes under stimulation from TNF, IL-1, and IL-6.,
- CRP is often used to diagnose bacterial infectious disease and inflammatory disorders such as acute rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis.
- CRP is an acute-phase reactant, a protein made by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours after tissue injury, the start of an infection, or other causes of inflammation.
- High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) is useful in evaluating patients with an acute myocardial infarction, or heart attack.
- Chronically elevated low-grade CRP has been associated with vessel damage and vascular disease.
- It may also be used postoperatively to detect wound infections.
- Fasting is usually not required, however, some laboratories require a 4- to 12-hour fast.
- Factors which may cause increased levels
- intrauterine device
- Drugs: oral contraceptives
- Factors which may cause decreased levels
- Drugs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, salicylates, and steroids
High levels indicate:
- Acute, noninfectious inflammatory reaction (e.g., arthritis, acute rheumatic fever, Reiter's syndrome, Crohn's disease
- Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., vasculitis syndrome, lupus erythematous)
- Tissue infarction or damage (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, kidney or bone marrow transplant rejection, soft tissue trauma)
- Bacterial infections such as postoperative wound infection, periodontal disease, urinary tract infection, or tuberculosis
- Malignant disease
- Bacterial infection (e.g., tuberculosis)
- Increased levels associated with obesity, smoking, aging, and diabetes
- Increased levels may be due to high level of HbA1C, anemia
Low levels inicate:
- the level of CRP in the blood in normally low.
- Pagana Kathleen D, Pagana Timothy J (2006) Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, Mosby, Inc
- Weatherby Dicken, Ferguson Scott (2002) Blood Chemistry and CBC Analysis: Clinical Laboratory Testing from a Functional Perspective, Bear Mountain.
- Tardik George (FEb/Mar 2009) New, Emerging and Controversial Risk Factors for Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease IHP:36,39-40