From Health Facts
Atherosclerosis, or coronary artery disease, is a slowly progressive peripheral artery disease which involves the buildup of fatty deposits in the innermost lining of large and medium-sized arterties. The fatty deposits are referred to as plaque which is composed on primarily cholesterol and calcium. Atherosclerosis is largely a disease of diet and lifestyle and contributes to a large number of heart attack and stroke deaths in North America.
|Causes||Dietary Factors, Smoking, Stress, Lack of Movement, Infections|
|See Also||Cardiovascular Conditions, Arteriosclerosis, Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes|
|Books||Books on Cardiovascular Conditions|
|Articles||Articles on Cardiovascular Conditions|
Assessing for the presence of atherosclerosis is common in those over the age of 40 and for anyone that is of increased risk.
In order to stimulate the innate ability of the body to heal the causes of disease must be identified and addressed. With atherosclerosis the causes are variable and include lifestyle and environmental factors. A detailed assessment is required to determine which factors are contributing to atherosclerosis.
|Check out this book||The Anti-Inflammation Diet and Recipe Book: Protect Yourself and Your Family From Heart Disease, Arthritis, Diabetes, Allergies - and More|
- A diet high in animal protein, dairy, cholesterol, fat and sugar has been correlated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. A high calorie diet and one that is low in dietary fibre is also a factor.
- High glycemic index food and diabetes result in high levels of blood glucose, which raises the core body temperature. The ingestion of hyperosmolal salt, glucose, and amino acids singularly or synergistically raise the core body temperature, forcing abdominal aorta to form an insulation wall of fatty material causing atherosclerotic plaques. The ingestion of water decreases the formation of plaques.
- Vitamin D deficiency could be an independent risk factor for the development of peripheral artery disease.
- Prolonged sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.
- Lack of physical activity increases one's risk. Regular exercise offers protection against all-cause mortality, primarily by protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and there is evidence that physical training is effective as a treatment in patients with chronic heart diseases and type 2 diabetes.
- Pscyholigolical factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary artery disease. The psychological factors that have the greatest impact include: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation and chronic life stress
- A "Type A" personality may increase ones exposure to potential triggers, rather than materially affecting the process of atherosclerosis, mind you, there is some research that indicates that Type A personality, in an of itself, is a risk factor for atherosclerosis.
- Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease.
- Smoking increases internal body heat, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
- Smoking increases the risk of high cholesterol as it impairs endothelial function and is associated with increased levels of LDL.
- Epidemiological evidence shows that patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have higher titres of anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies. Chlamydia can provide artherosclerotic lesion development and progression. Chronic infection raises triglycerides and lowers HDL levels in both heart disease and non-symptomatic individuals. Chronic chlamydia infections are significantly more common in smokers than in non-smokers. 
- There are now a large number of different infectious agents that have been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These include: Chlamydia pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Helicobacter pylori , influenza A virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus.
- Chronic peridontal disease has been found in many epidemilogical studies to correlate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
- A number of environmental toxins can contribute to the onset of atherosclerosis.
- Prescription Medications
- Although the data is conflicting, there is a concern that birth control pills increase the risk of atherosclerosis.
- Medical Treatments
- Aging brings about degenerative arterial changes such as dilation, tortuosity, thickening and loss of elasticity.
- Disease processes such as autoimmune disease increases risk for development of accelerated atherosclerosis and other Cardiovascular Conditions.
- Physical exam findings can include diagonal earlobe crease, , vertex balding, 
- It is common for the following lab tests to be ordered to assess the risk of coronoary artery disease: total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, Lipoprotein A, Apolipoprotein B, fibrinogen, homocysteine, ferritin, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), lipid peroxides, testosterone, uric acid, bilirubin, platelet.
- Other diagnostic testing includes an exercise stress test, EKG and echocardiogram.
Related Symptoms and Conditions
- Insulin resistance
- Hypothyroidism, even subclinical hypothyroidism.
- High triglycerides
- Type II Diabetes
- Peripheral arterial disease or peripheral vascular disorder is a risk factor for the development of atherosclotic disease in other locations of the body.
The presence of fatty deposits in the artery walls leads to an important loss of arterial elasticity and narrowing of the artery. This constriction to smooth blood-flow deprives vital organs or their blood supply. Atherosclerotic plaques are surrounded by a fibrous cap. Artherosclerosis is an inflammatory process. Chronic low-grade inflammation triggers the fibrous cap to rupture, which in turn causes a clot to form in the arteries that supply the heart. The actual symptoms and signs depend on the specific arteries involved and the degree of obstruction or blockage., 
- Mild atherosclerosis is normally asymptomatic
- Weak pulse and wide pulse pressure can be present
- Gradual mental deterioration, weakness or dizziness may occur.
- Intermittent claudication (leg cramps)
Risks of Atherosclerosis includes:
The goal of naturopathic treatment is to support and work in tandem with the healing power of the body and to address the causal factors of disease with individual treatment strategies. Atherosclerosis is typically a chronic disease. The therapeutic objectives of atherosclerosis are to address underlying blood lipids and cholesterol, improve circulation and to reduce oxidative stress.
It is always advisable to work with a naturopathic doctor before engaging in any treatment plan.
Lifestyle recommendations include:
- Dietary recommendations include:
- Increasing whole, unprocessed, unrefined foods with an emphasis on flavonoid-containing foods and beverages.
- While high fat diets may promote short-term weight loss, the potential hazards for worsening risk for progression of atherosclerosis override the short-term benefits. Individuals derive the greatest health benefits from diets low in saturated fat and high in carbohydrate and fiber: these increase sensitivity to insulin and lower risk for CHD.
- Consider the Paleo, Pritikin or Ornish diet. Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression of even severe coronary atherosclerosis after only 1 year, without use of lipid-lowering drugs.
- A Portfolio Diet was found to reduce LDL by 29% within one month.
- Typically restrition of saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, and cholesterol-rich foods is required. It is also advisable to reduce caloric intake especially if overweight.
- Increase fiber-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes. A diet high in starch and vegetable protein has been shown to have a decreased risk of atherosclerosis.
- Limit coffee (both caffeinated and decaf). 
- Red wine contains flavonoids and may provide some protection when consumed in moderation.
- Ensure that you drink adequate water. Hydrogen-infused water may prove to have added benefits.
- Physical exercise is a useful weapon against local vascular and systemic inflammation in atherosclerosis.
- Regular exercise is beneficial, on its own and as part of dietary treatment, in the treatment of cholesterol., 
- Aerobic fitness is a beneficial treatment for atherosclerosis, especially if asymptomatic.
- Aerobic exercise may show more benefit in those not on statins.
- Yoga lifestyle intervention retards progression and increases regression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with severe coronary artery disease. It also improves symptomatic status, functional class and risk factor profile.
The prescribing of naturopathic therapies requires the guidance of a naturopathic doctor as it depends on a number of factors including the causal factors, a person's age, prescription medications, other conditions and symptoms and overall health. It is always advisable to work with a naturopathic doctor prior to taking any natural therapies.
Naturopathic Therapies for atherosclerosis include:
- Clinical Nutritional supplements including
- Vitamins: Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Vitamin E, Folic Acid, Niacin, B Complex, Vitamin D, Choline, Vitamin B12.
- Minerals: Magnesium, Selenium, Chromium, Potassium
- Amino Acids such as L-carnitine
- Other supplements: Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Psyllium, Coenzyme Q10, Lactobacillus sporogenes. Increase antioxidants , [Flax Seed Oil|Flaxseed oil]]., Plant sterols, policosanol.
- Herbs such as Garlic (Allium sativum), Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), Tumeric (Curcuma longa).,  Yarrow (Achileea millefolium), Crampbark (Viburnum opulus), Guggulipid, Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna bark), Coleus forskohlii (Coleus), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Boswellia, Capsium minimum (Cayenne pepper).
- Homeopathy can be helpful in the treatment of atherosclerosis and high cholesterol.
- Differentials to consider for constitutional treatment includes general conditions such as; stagnation of qi, blood or plegm.
- Acupuncture points to consider include; PC6, PC4, UB15, CV17, LI11, ST, UB16, UB14.
- If weight control is part of the case consider differentials such as; excess constitutions, qi and blood stagnation, phlegm, and phlegm damp. Consider acupuncture points such as; CV12, CV6, ST25, HT7, ST34, SP4, PC7, CV4.
- With high cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia consider differentials such as; phlegm and blood stagnation, blood stagnation. Consider acupuncture such as; SP9, SP10, TW5, ST36, ST40, PC7, PC8, TW10, LI9, LI10, LR7, SP9, GB34, Ashi around PC3/4.
- Constitutional hydrotherapy can be beneficial in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases.
Reviewed by Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND 
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Pizzorno Joseph, Murray Michael, Joiner-Bey Herb (2002) The Clinician's Handbook of Natural Medicine Churchill Livingstone
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hoffmann David (1992) Therapeutic herbalism: A correspondence course in phytotherapy
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Mathur RK (Apr 2010) Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis. J Cardiovasc Dis Res.;1(2):64-8. PMID: 20877688.
- ↑ Chua GT, Chan YC, Cheng SW (2011) Vitamin D status and peripheral arterial disease: evidence so far. Vasc Health Risk Manag.;7:671-5. PMID: 22140318.
- ↑ Vermeer C (2012) Vitamin K: the effect on health beyond coagulation - an overview. Food Nutr Res.;56.doi: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5329. PMID: 22489224.
- ↑ Pedersen BK (2006) The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise: its role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease control. Essays Biochem.;42:105-17. PMID: 17144883.
- ↑ Rozanski Alan, Blumenthal James A, Kaplan Jay (1999) Impact of Psychological Factors on the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease and Implications for Therapy. Circulation;99:2192-2217.
- ↑ Gallacher JE, Sweetnam PM, Yarnell JW, Elwood PC, Stansfeld SA (May-Jun 2003) Is type A behavior really a trigger for coronary heart disease events? Psychosom Med.;65(3):339-46.
- ↑ Sparagon B, Friedman M, Breall WS, Goodwin ML, Fleischmann N, Ghandour G (May 2001) Type A behavior and coronary atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis.;156(1):145-9.
- ↑ Heitzer Thomas, Ylä-Herttuala Seppo, Luoma Jukka, Kurz Sabine, Münzel Thomas, Just Hanjörg, Olschewski Manfred, Drexler Helmut (1996) Cigarette Smoking Potentiates Endothelial Dysfunction of Forearm Resistance Vessels in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia. Role of Oxidized LDL Circulation;93:1346-1353.
- ↑ Zhao X, Bu DX, Hayfron K, Pinkerton KE, Bevins CL, Lichtman A, Wiedeman J (Feb 2012) A combination of secondhand cigarette smoke and Chlamydia pneumoniae accelerates atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. PMID: 22410122.
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- ↑ Soska V, Fiala J, Nebeska K, Jarkovsky J, Hruba D (April 2011) The atherogenic index of plasma is increased by hormonal contraception. Scand J Clin Lab Invest.;71(2):94-100. PMID: 21261509.
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- ↑ López-Pedrera C, Pérez-Sánchez C, Ramos-Casals M, Santos-Gonzalez M, Rodriguez-Ariza A, Cuadrado MJ(2011)Cardiovascular risk in systemic autoimmune diseases: epigenetic mechanisms of immune regulatory functions. Clin Dev Immunol;2012:974648.PMID:21941583
- ↑ Grundtman C, Wick G.(2011)The autoimmune concept of atherosclerosis.’’ Curr Opin Lipidol;22(5):327-34.PMID:21881502
- ↑ Friedlande AH, López-López J, Velasco-Ortega E (Jan 2012) Diagonal ear lobe crease and atherosclerosis: a review of the medical literature and dental implications. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal.;17(1):e153-9. PMID: 21743392
- ↑ Shrestha I, Ohtsuki T, Takahashi T, Nomura E, Kohriyama T, Matsumoto M (Oct 2009) Diagonal ear-lobe crease is correlated with atherosclerotic changes in carotid arteries. Circ J.;73(10):1945-9. PMID: 19644217.
- ↑ Dogramaci AC, Balci DD, Balci A, Karazincir S, Savas N, Topaloglu C, Yalcin F (Jun 2009) Is androgenetic alopecia a risk for atherosclerosis? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.;23(6):673-7. PMID: 19250324.
- ↑ Lotufo PA, Chae CU, Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Manson JE (Jan 2000) Male pattern baldness and coronary heart disease: the Physicians' Health Study. Arch Intern Med.;160(2):165-71. PMID: 10647754.
- ↑ Lukaczer Dan (2001) Nutritional Support for Insulin Resistance Applied Nutritional Science Reports
- ↑ Goroll A, Mulley A, editors.(2009) Primary Care Medicine – Office evaluation and management of the adult patient. Boston: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;34:pg308-312
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- ↑ Jenkins David, Kendall Cyril, Faulkner Dorothea, et al. (Dec 2002) A Dietary Portfoli Approach to Cholesterol Reduction: Combined Effects of Plant Sterols, Vegetable Proteins, and Viscous Fibers in Hypercholesterolemia Metabolism;51(12):1596-1604.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Prousky Jonathan 2008 Principles & Practices of Naturopathic Clinical Nutrition, CCNM Press, Toronto.
- ↑ Lippi G, Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G (Feb 2010) Moderate red wine consumption and cardiovascular disease risk: beyond the "French paradox". Semin Thromb Hemost.;36(1):59-70. PMID: 20391297.
- ↑ Ohsawa I, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Ishikawa M, Ohta S (Dec 2008) Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.;377(4):1195-8. PMID: 18996093.
- ↑ Pinto A, Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Buttà C, Milio G, Licata G (Feb 2012) Effects of Physical Exercise on Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis Curr Pharm Des. PMID: 22390642.
- ↑ Varady KA, Jones PF (Aug 2005) Combination diet and exercise interventions for the treatment of dyslipidemia: an effective preliminary strategy to lower cholesterol levels? J Nutr;135(8):1829-1835.
- ↑ Franklin BA, Kahn JK, Gordon NF, Bonow RO (Jul 2004) A cardioprotective "polypill"? Independent and additive benefits of lifestyle modification. Am J Cardiol;'94(2):162-166.
- ↑ Sung J, Cho SJ, Choe YH, Choi YH, Hong KP (Mar 2012) Prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic middle-age men with high aerobic fitness. Am J Cardiol.;109(6):839-43. PMID: 22196784.
- ↑ Rauramaa R, Halonen P, Väisänen SB, Lakka TA, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Berg A, Penttilä IM, Rankinen T, Bouchard C (Jun 2004) Effects of aerobic physical exercise on inflammation and atherosclerosis in men: the DNASCO Study: a six-year randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med.;140(12):1007-14. PMID: 15197018.
- ↑ Manchanda SC, Narang R, Reddy KS, Sachdeva U, Prabhakaran D, Dharmanand S, Rajani M, Bijlani R (Jul 2000) Retardation of coronary atherosclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention. J Assoc Physicians India.;48(7):687-94. PMID: 11273502.
- ↑ Levy A, Friedenberg P, Lotan R, et al. (2004) The effect of vitamin therapy on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis varies by heptoglobin type in postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care.;27(4):925-930.
- ↑ Smith Fraser, Winterstein James (2008) An Introduction to Principles & Practices of Naturopathic Medicine CCNM Press Inc., Toronto:pg258-260
- ↑ Godfrey Anthony, Saunders Paul Richard, Barlow Kerry, Gilbert Cyndi, Gowan Matthew, Smith Fraser (2010) Principles and Practices of Naturopathic Botanical Medicine, Vol 1: Botanical Medicine Monographs, CCNM Press, Toronto
- ↑ Boon Heather, Smith Michael (2004) The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to the 50 Most Common Medicinal Herbs, Robert Rose, Toronto
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Kuoch David(2011) Acupuncture Desk Reference. 2nd ed. Acumedwest Inc.:pg290-307
- ↑ Boyle W, Saine A (1988) Lectures in Naturopathic Hydrotherapy. Eclectic Medical Publications.:pg144