Type II Diabetes, which used to be called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or NIDDM, accounts for about 90% of all types of diabetes. It is a condition of disordered carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Cells throughout the body become insensitive to the action of insulin and blood glucose levels rise as a result. Glucose is then unable to enter muscle or fat cells which results in serious complications throughout the body 
In 2005 1.8 million Canadians  and 14.6 Americans  were living with diagnosed diabetes. In the US, by the time they are 65 years old, 26.9% of individuals have diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, mind you due to declining lifestyle and dietary habits more young people are being diagnosed.  It is estimated that 1 out of 3 people in North America will develop Type II Diabetes throughout their lifetime.
Naturopathic Medicine and Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Analysis from an Academic Clinic , Alt Med; 2006;Vol11(1)|
Whole-fat Dairy Consumption Associated with Lower Metabolic Risk Factors and Lower Incidence of Diabetes, NMJ, , 2012 March|
In order to stimulate the innate ability of the body to heal the causes of disease must be identified and addressed. Diabetes is known as a lifestyle disease as it is triggered primarily by lifestyle factors, although other factors also come into play.
The lifestyle factors associated with Type II Diabetes include:
Type 2 Diabetes, Depression, and Magnesium, NMJ, , 2012 October|
- Sleeping less than six hours or greater than 9 hours a night contributes to weight gain and diabetes.
- Various types of stress factors can contribute to Type II Diabetes, for example psychosocial stress at work have been demonstrated to double the risk of Type II Diabetes in women 
Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Serious Clinical Concern, Vital Link; 2013 Spring|
- Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and this in turn is linked to [insulin resistance]] and increased risk of Type II Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.
- Organochlorine pesticides (OC) and PCBs are significantly associated with Type II Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. OC result in elevated levels of triglycerides, high fasting glucse and insulin resistance. PCBs result in increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides and impaired fasting glucose., 
- Prescription Mediciations
- Diabetes can be drug-induced. The following medications are associated with the development, or worsening of glucose intolerance:  corticosteroids, diuretics (especially thiazide diuretics), beta-blockers, beta-adrenergic agonists, oral contraceptives, cyclophilin immunosuppressants, diazoxide
- Low birth weight and poor nutrition during infancy ma predispose an individual to development of Type II Diabetes in adulthood 
- A first-degree relative with diabetes, especially early-onset type II diabetes increases the risk of acquiring diabetes.
Diabetes is often discovered, especially in the elderly, as part of routine annual blood testing. The following are the diagnostic values for diabetes:
Additional tests that are often used in the assessment or management of diabetes include Blood Glucose, Hemoglobin A1C (Hb1aC), C-peptide, Insulin, Blood Ketones Cholesterol Panel, Kidney Function Test, Amylase, Lipase and blood insulin levels, Ferritin, Liver Function Tests.
- Address other associated conditions including:
- Blood glucose and Hemoglobin A1C levels are best checked every three months if the diabetes is not well controlled and every six months if it is controlled. If there are any concerns with heart or kidney health they are best monitored every three-to-six months as well.
- Blood pressure, eye exam, dental cleaning and checkup and examination of the skin and a nerve test to check for changes in sensitivity in the feet should be done on a yearly basis as part of diabetes management along with the the blood tests listed above.
- It is important to continue monitor the feet for ingrown toenails, cuts and sores on the feet that might become infected or general foot care.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypogonadism: Interview with Neil Mages, NDNR , 2011 November|
The onset of Type II Diabetes is typically gradual and subtle. It occurs when the body loses the ability to utilize insulin appropriately, which is referred to as insulin resistance. When glucose is unable to enter the cells, hyperglycemia results.
The symptoms that can indicate the need to rule out diabetes include:
A Geriatric Perspective on Type 2 Diabetes, NDNR 2012 February|
The Association of High Fructose Corn Syrup Consumption and Diabetes , 2013 Summer;Vol20 (2) Vital Link|
The complications of diabetes include:
The goal of naturopathic treatment is to support and work in tandem with the healing power of the body and to address the causal factors of disease with individual treatment strategies. Diabetes is often considered a progressive chronic disease often due to lifestyle factors. The steps required to treat diabetes very much are dependent on the progression of the disease and the degree to which lifestyle and other risk factors are addressed. The goal of naturopathic treatment is to control blood sugar and to prevent the complications associated with diabetes.
It is always advisable to work with a naturopathic doctor before engaging in any treatment plan.
Home Care strategies include:
- Daily blood sugar monitoring is a critical step in the management of Type I Diabetes.
- Recognize the symptoms for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia and make sure you know how to treat them.
- Learn how to adjust insulin and food when you exercise, when you're sick or as there are changes to your overall health.
- Pay special attention to changes in blood sugar levels with any dietary changes.
- Diabetes damages the blood vessels and the nerves, especially in the feet. This increases the likelihood that of foot injuries, infections and ulcers.
- Proper and ongoing foot care and hygiene is important to prevent and/or manage any peripheral neuropathy, edema, or foot infections.
- Check your feet on a daily basis, especially if you have any signs of decreased sensation or any numbness.
- Get a foot exam by a qualified professional at least twice a year.
- For many individuals diabetic shoes and socks are extremely beneficial.
The management of diabetes is always multi-factorial. It involves ongoing attention to a number of lifestyle factors including:
- Ensure that you maintain a healthy body weight by exercising daily and consuming a healthy diet of adequate caloric intake. Losing 10% of your body weight has been known to greatly improve blood sugar control.
diet, exercise and hydration. Specific Lifestyle recommendations include:
Low Carbohydrate Diet & Other Nutritional Considerations for Treatment and Prevention of Complications of Diabetes, Vital Link; 2005 Winter|
Diabetes: Diet and lifestyle- based management- Update 2010, IHP, Nov/Dec 2010|
Exercise & Diabetes: From Benefits to Precautions, Vital Link; 2005 Winter|
- Exercise at least 3 - 5 times per week can prevent development of Type II Diabetes and can help manage blood sugar levels when you have diabetes.
- Physical activity helps to control weight, uses glucose as energy, and makes cells more sensitive to insulin., 
- Stress relaxation aids blood sugar control.
The prescribing of naturopathic therapies requires the guidance of a naturopathic doctor as it depends on a number of factors including the causal factors, a person's age, prescription medications, other conditions and symptoms and overall health. It is always advisable to work with a naturopathic doctor prior to taking any natural therapies.
Substituting Vitamins and Supplements for Pharmaceuticals in Type 2 Diabetes J Orthomolecular Med 2012;Vol27(1)|
Arginine in type II diabetes: Clinical applications, IHP, , Nov/Dec 2010|
Botanical Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes, NMJ, , 2012 February|
Naturopathic Therapies for Type II Diabetes include:
- Fruits such as guava, lemon, plum, crab apple.
- Vegetables, Roots, Nuts & Gourds such as corn silk, kohlrabi, yam, water chestnut.
- Legumes such as string (green) bean, mung bean.
- Meats such as beef, pork.
- Vitamins such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin B12 
- Minerals such as magnesium, chromium, zinc
- Amino Acids such as taurine, L-Carnitine, Alanine and Histidine.
- Other supplements such as Alpha lipoic acid  essential fatty acids, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), antioxidants, bioflavonoids, Coenzyme Q10, Betaine HCL, Brewer's Yeast, Flax Seed Oil, Lycopene, Psyllium, Quercetin, Spirulina
Cinnamon: Applications in diabetes, IHP, , Nov/Dec 2010|
Type II diabetes: Essential nutrient, nutraceutical, and functional food considerations, IHP, , Nov/Dec 2010|
- Herbs such as Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), Garlic (Allium sativum), Ginseng (Panax ginseng), Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Bitter melon (Momordica charantia), Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestra), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Milk Thistle (Silymarin marianum), Saltbush (Atriplex halimus), East Indian Kino tree (Pterocarpus marsupium), Bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus), Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Burdock (Arctium lappa), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum), Goat's Rue (Galega officinalis), Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), , Capsicum frutescens, Olive (Olea europaea)
Energetic Viewpoint on Diabetes, Vital Link; 2005 Winter|
- Traditional Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture In Traditional Chinese Medicine, conditions are diagnosed based on patterns of symptoms. Diabetes is not considered to be caused by the same process in each individual, but several processes are possible and would each be treated uniquely:
- Lung-Stomach Heat Accumulation & Fluid Damage, Intense & Exuberant Stomach Heat, Qi & Yin Dual Vacuity, Kidney Yin Vacuity, Spleen-Stomach Qi Vacuity, Damp Heat Obstructing the Center, Spleen-Kidney Yang Vacuity.
- ↑ Pizzorno Jr. Joseph E, Murray Michael T, Joiner-Bey Herb (2008) The Clinician's Handbook of Natural Medicine Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Canadian Diabetes Association (2008) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada Volume 32. Supplement 1. Canadian Journal of Diabetes.
- ↑ Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005 National Diabetes Fact Sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/estimates05.htm.
- ↑ Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) National Diabetes Fact Sheet, http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf
- ↑ Narayan KM, Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Sorensen SW, Williamson DF (Oct 2003) Lifetime risk for diabetes mellitus in the United States. JAMA;290(14):1884–90. PMID 14532317.
- ↑ Schwarz PE, Greaves CJ, Lindström J, Yates T, Davies MJ (2012) Nonpharmacological interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Endocrinology;epublication. PMID: 22249519
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Murray Michael (1994) Diabetes and Hypoglycemia. How you can benefit from diet, vitamins, minerals, herbs, exercise and other natural methods. Prima Health.
- ↑ Hayes C, Kriska A (Apr 2008) Role of physical activity in diabetes management and prevention. J Am Diet Assoc.;Vol108(4 Suppl 1):S19-23. PMID 18358249
- ↑ Patel SR, Malhotra A, White DP, Gottlieb DJ, Hu FB (Nov 2006) Association between reduced sleep and weight gain in women. Am J Epidemiol;Vol164(10):947-54. PMID: 16914506
- ↑ Ayas NT, White DP, Al-Delaimy WK, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Patel S, Hu FB. (Feb 2003) A prospective study of self-reported sleep duration and incident diabetes in women. Diabetes Care;Vol26(2):380-4. PMID: 12547866
- ↑ Xie X, Liu Q, Wu J, Wakui M. (May 2009) Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica;Vol30;784-787. PMID: 19434055
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 Mclellan Alexander, Friedman Michael (2007) Healing Diabetes: Complementary Naturopathic and Drug Treatments CCNM Press.
- ↑ Heraclides A, Chandola T, Witte DR, Brunner EJ.(Dec 2009) Psychosocial stress at work doubles the risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women: evidence from the Whitehall II study. Diabetes Care;Vol32(12);2230-5. PMID: 19720842
- ↑ Holick M (2004) Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. American Society for Clinical Nutrition;362-371.
- ↑ Hyman Mark (Mar/Apr 2010) Environmental toxins, obsity and Diabetes: An emerging risk factor.' Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine;Vol.16(2):56-58.
- ↑ Lee HK (Jun 2011) Mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance: the contribution of dioxin-like substances. Diabetes Metab J;Vol35(3);207-15. PMID:21785739
- ↑ Lee DH, Lee IK, Porta M, Steffes M, Jacobs DR Jr. (Sep 2007) Relationship between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetologia;Vol50(9):1841-51. PMID 17624515
- ↑ Lee DH, Lee IK, Jin SH, Steffes M, Jacobs DR Jr.(Mar 2007) Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and insulin resistance among nondiabetic adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care;Vol30(3):622-8. PMID 17327331
- ↑ de Leon EM, Jacober SJ, Sobel JD, Foxman B. (2002) Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal Candida colonization in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. BMC Infect Dis;Vol2:1-6. PMID: 11835694
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Krentz Andrew J (2000) Churchill's pocketbook of Diabetes. Harcourt Publishers Limited.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Canadian Diabetes Association www.diabetes.ca
- ↑ Niswender K (2010) Diabetes and obesity: therapeutic targeting and risk reduction – a complex interplay. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism;Vol12(4);267-287. PMID: 20380648
- ↑ Redinger RN (Feb 2008) The physiology of adiposity. J Ky Med Assoc;Vol106(2):53-62. PMID 18390031
- ↑ Goldstein DJ (Jun 1992) Beneficial health effects of modest weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.;Vol16(6):397-415. PMID: 1322866
- ↑ McGeoch SC, Holtrop G, Fyfe C, Lobley GE, Pearson DW, Abraham P, Megson IL, Macrury SM, Johnstone AM (Jun 2011) Food Intake and Dietary Glycaemic Index in Free-Living Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients;Vol3(6);683-93. PMID: 22254116
- ↑ Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA (Dec 2003) Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care;26(12)3215-3218
- ↑ Plasqui G, Westerterp KR (May 2007) Physical Activity and Insulin Resistance. Current Nutrition & Food Science;Vol3(2):157-160
- ↑ Lu Henry (1986) Chinese System of Food Cures, prevention and remedies Sterling Publishing Co. New York.
- ↑ Prousky Jonathan (2008) Principles and Practices of Naturopathic Clinical Nutrition CCNM Press Inc.
- ↑ Huseini HF, Larijani B, Heshmat R, Fakhrzadeh H, Radjabipour B, Toliat T, Raza M. The efficacy of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phytother Res.2006 Dec;20(12):1036-9.
- ↑ Locke A (1998) The Family Guide to Homeopathy: The Safe Form of Medicine for the Future. Penguin.
- ↑ Flaws B, Sionneau P (2002) The Treatment of Modern Western Diseases with Chinese Medicine: A Textbook and Clinical Manual. Blue Poppy Press.